National Security Strategy of India,2023

National Security Strategy


India started the process of implementing a National Security Strategy (NSS) following years of discussions among the military and strategic community. Before submitting the text of the plan to the cabinet for final approval, the National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) is gathering input from a number of Central ministries and departments. This is the first National Security Strategy that India has released.

What is a National Security Strategy?

  • The nation’s security goals and the strategies to be used to attain them are described in a National Security Strategy document.
  • Traditional dangers, which exclusively harm the state, and non-traditional threats, which affect the state, the individual, and all of humanity, should be taken into account by an NSS. It must also function within the bounds of democratic ideals and the Indian Constitution.
  • In addition to policies pertaining to intelligence, defense, and other security-related matters, the strategy frequently included evaluations of possible threats, resource allocation, diplomatic and military operations, and other items.

Which Countries Have a National Security Strategy?

  • National Security Strategy are in place in developed countries like the United States, the United Kingdom, and Russia which have sophisticated military and security systems.
  • Pakistan has published a National Security Policy 2022–2026, and China has a Comprehensive National Security policy as well.

What is Need of National Security Strategy in India?

  • Era of Strategic Uncertainty
    • A more complicated and uncertain world awaits us after the end of the Cold War, with armed forces facing ever-larger tasks and an increasing number of possible enemies.
    • Global politics are being influenced by non-state entities such as transnational NGOs, multinational businesses, warlords, and ethnic chieftains, while certain regional groups are taking on state roles.
    • Important issues that need to be closely monitored are terrorism, ethnic diversity, the spread of small guns, drug trafficking, and religious fanaticism.
  • Nuclear Security and Geopolitical Shifts
    • One of India’s most important security concerns is the future of nuclear deterrent. India has long been concerned about China’s and Pakistan’s nuclear weapons in the area.
    • Concerns over US nuclear weapons stationed on the Indian Ocean island of Diego Garcia have also been voiced by India. India’s nuclear deterrence must evolve to keep up with advances in technology and changes in global politics.
  • Emerging Indo-Pacific Security Framework
    • The Indo-Pacific area is emerging as the new strategic center of gravity, with the balance of power moving from North America and Europe to this region.
    • In the Indo-Pacific region, “competitive cooperation” is envisioned inside a matrix of “cooperative security” by an evolving security paradigm.
  • Challenges Beyond Conventional Threats
    • Social and economic problems, such as left-wing radicalism in tribal regions, might pose a danger to domestic stability.
  • Technological Advancements and Cybersecurity
    • Technology has an influence on national security since it both increases capabilities and introduces new risks.
    • One big worry is cybersecurity, which calls for highly developed technological skills.
  • Ecological Degradation and Climate Change
    • Sea level rise and glacier melting are two examples of environmental changes that have an impact on security.
  • Need to Strengthen National Security Architecture
    • In its advising capacity, the National Security Council (NSC) has not been fully used.
    • Increasing the National Security Adviser’s (NSA) powers is an urgent requirement.

What Can Be Benefits of the National Security Strategy in India?

  • Comprehensive Approach: An NSS offers a thorough framework for holistically tackling a range of security issues, both internal and external.
    It provides a clear definition of security objectives, aiding in the identification of possible threats and the assets and interests that require protection.
  • Clear Objectives: It provides a clear definition of security objectives, aiding in the identification of possible threats and the assets and interests that require protection.
  • Policy Guidance: In order to assist the government in developing and putting into practice plans and policies to protect national security, an NSS provides policy direction.
  • Prioritization: It facilitates the prioritization of security risks, allowing resources and efforts to be directed toward the most urgent problems.
  • Resource Allocation: It helps with resource allocation, making it possible to employ money and people resources more effectively to increase security.
  • Deterrence: The plan can serve as a deterrent to possible enemies by displaying a coherent and well-thought-out approach to national security.
  • Whole-of-Government Approach: Through the participation of several government departments and agencies, NSS encourages a “whole-of-government” approach, guaranteeing coordination and collaboration in areas pertaining to security.
  • Public Awareness: Public dissemination of NSS components can help to increase public support and knowledge of national security issues.
  • International Engagement: India’s interactions on security issues with foreign nations and international organizations might be directed by an NSS.

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What Are Challenges For Developing a National Security Strategy?

  • Legal Framework: Although it might be difficult, it is crucial to make sure that the NSS conforms with all applicable legal frameworks, including both domestic and international agreements.
  • Divergence between the military and political leadership: There may be disagreements on a formal NSS within the Ministry of Defence’s bureaucratic structure and other government departments.
  • Changing Threat Landscape: It is a constant effort to modify the NSS to handle new security risks, such as cyberattacks, terrorism, and non-traditional security issues.
  • Reactive Approach: India has frequently taken a reactive stance toward national security, dealing with security issues as they come up instead of putting a comprehensive and proactive plan in place.
  • National Security Culture: It has taken time to develop a national security culture that highlights the value of an NSS and methodical security thinking.


An anticipatory and adaptable National Security Strategy is essential to India’s prosperity and well-being in a world that is always changing. Adopting a vigilant and flexible National Security Strategy would help India navigate the changing global security environment and safeguard its values and interests in the twenty-first century.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs)

  1. How does the strategy address internal security issues?

    The strategy encompasses internal security concerns through collaboration between various agencies and modernizing law enforcement techniques.

  2. What role does India’s relationship with neighboring countries play in this strategy?

    Neighboring countries are crucial in India’s security strategy, as maintaining stable relationships is vital for regional stability.

  3. How does the strategy balance defense spending and economic growth?

    The strategy aims to strike a balance, allocating resources for defense without compromising economic development.

  4. How does the strategy view the role of technology in national security?

    Technology plays a pivotal role, particularly in surveillance, intelligence, and defense mechanisms.


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