What is Sudan Conflict 2023?

Sudan conflict


On April 15, the political unrest in Sudan descended into an all-out war after a dispute over the Security Sector Reform (SSR) between the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF) and the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) led to a shootout between the two wings’ commanders. The term “Sudan conflict” designates a number of active armed conflicts and unrest that are taking place in Sudan, a nation in northeastern Africa. These wars have led to severe violence, population displacement, and violations of human rights.

What Is Sudan Conflict?

  • The Darfur crisis, which started in 2003 and has been marked by ethnic and regional conflict among Arab militias against non-Arab African ethnic groups, represents one of the most popular conflicts in Sudan.
  • Millions of people have been displaced as a result of the violence, which the UN has called one of the greatest humanitarian catastrophes in history.
  • In addition, there have been other conflicts in Sudan, such as the South Sudan conflict, which started in 2013 following South Sudan’s 2011 secession from Sudan. Political and racial violence have been prominent features of the conflict, which has pitted the South Sudanese government against a number of rebel organizations.

Effect of the Sudan Conflict on India

1. Economic Impact

India has economic interests in Sudan, particularly in the oil and gas sector. India is heavily dependent on imported oil, and Sudan is one of its important sources of crude oil. Any disruption in the oil supply from Sudan due to the conflict could lead to an increase in oil prices, which could have an adverse impact on India’s economy.

2. Diplomatic Relations

India maintains friendly relations with Sudan and has been involved in peacekeeping efforts in the country. The ongoing conflict could strain India’s relations with Sudan and other African countries, affecting India’s diplomatic standing in the region.

3. Security Concerns

The conflict in Sudan has led to an increase in arms smuggling and terrorism in the region. This could have security implications for India, particularly with regard to its vulnerability to terrorist attacks.

4. Humanitarian Impact

The conflict in Sudan has led to a large number of refugees and internally displaced persons. If the situation worsens, there could be a significant humanitarian crisis, and India may be called upon to provide aid and support to the affected people.

Effect of Sudan Conflict on World

1. Refugee crisis

The conflict in Sudan has resulted in one of the largest refugee crises in the world. Millions of Sudanese people have been forced to flee their homes due to violence and persecution. This has had a significant impact on neighboring countries such as South Sudan, Ethiopia, and Chad, which have had to absorb a large number of refugees.

2. Humanitarian crisis

The conflict in Sudan has resulted in a severe humanitarian crisis, with millions of people in need of humanitarian assistance. The conflict has made it difficult for aid organizations to access affected areas, exacerbating the crisis.

3. Economic impact

The conflict in Sudan has had a negative impact on the economy of the country and the region. The conflict has disrupted trade and investment, resulting in a decline in economic growth and development.

4. Global Security

The ongoing conflict in Sudan has the potential to destabilize the region and threaten global security. The conflict has created a breeding ground for extremist groups, which could pose a threat to global security.

India Start Operation “Kaveri” to Rescue Indians

  • According to S. Jaishankar, minister of external affairs, India has begun “Operation Kaveri” to evacuate its citizens from war-torn Sudan. According to information now available, over 3,000 Indians are trapped throughout Sudan, including the capital Khartoum and far-flung districts like Darfur.
  • India launched Operation Kaveri to rescue our citizens who are stranded in Sudan. Port Sudan has received about 500 Indians. More are coming. They will be returned to us in our ships and aircraft. committed to helping all of our Sudanese brothers,” Mr. Jaishankar stated in a statement.
  • In preparation for the mission, India had despatched INS Sumedha to Port Said and stationed two C-130J heavy-lift aircraft in Jeddah. Due to the complete breakdown of basic services in Sudan, where a lack of food, water, and electricity had brought about a standstill, the evacuation became urgent.

What is the RSF?

  • The so-called Janjaweed militias, which are said to have committed war crimes in the Darfur region, gave rise to the RSF, which was founded in 2013.
  • The squad was employed by the government to aid the army in quelling a revolt during the Darfur conflict in the 2000s.
  • A law establishing the RSF as a legitimate autonomous law enforcement agency was passed in 2017.
  • The RSF had developed in recent years into a well-equipped force of about 100,000, stationed throughout the country, and since the battle started, embedded in neighborhoods all across the capital, despite the fact that Sudan’s army had stronger assets including air power and an estimated 300,000 soldiers.

Clashes Between SAF and RSF

  • The Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and Rapid Support Forces (RSF) have been at war for 18 nonstop days despite numerous extensions of the ceasefire.
  • Since the start of the battle, at least 528 people have died and 4,599 have been injured; many more are likely to have perished as a result of the disruption of vital services, such as health care.
  • Over 100,000 people have reportedly fled to nearby countries, and it is estimated that 334,000 people have been internally displaced.
  • According to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, fighting in Ag Geneina has resulted in at least 96 fatalities since April 24 due to conflicts between the RSF and SAF in West Darfur.
  • According to the Armed Violence Location & Event Data Project, the violence has been focused in highly populated urban areas, with two-thirds of the fighting between the SAF and RSF during the first week of the fighting taking place in cities with more than 100,000 residents.

Also Read: India US Relations 2023

Who Fueled Sudan Conflict?

  • The Sudan conflict is a complex and multifaceted issue that has been fueled by a variety of factors, including political, economic, social, and historical issues.
  • One of the main drivers of the conflict has been competition for resources, particularly oil and water, between the various regions and ethnic groups in Sudan.
  • The government’s policies and actions, such as the displacement of people from their lands and the allocation of resources to certain groups, have also contributed to tensions and conflicts.
  • Another significant factor has been political instability and governance issues. The long-standing authoritarian rule of former President Omar al-Bashir and his government’s policies of marginalizing certain regions and groups, as well as human rights abuses, sparked protests and rebellions across the country.
  • Furthermore, external actors, such as neighboring countries and international organizations, have played a role in the Sudan conflict. Some have supported certain groups or factions, while others have attempted to mediate and resolve the conflict.

What’s the role of global participants?

  • Following the overthrow of al-Bashir, Western powers—including the US—had shifted their support to a transition to democratic elections. After the coup, they withdrew their financial assistance and supported the new transition and a civilian government.
  • Energy-rich powers Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates have also sought to shape events in Sudan, seeing the transition away from al-Bashir’s rule as a way to roll back his influence and bolster stability in the region.
  • Gulf governments have sought to invest in a variety of industries, including agriculture, where Sudan has enormous potential, and ports along the Red Sea coast of Sudan.
  • Several UAE businesses have been committing to investments, while Russia has been attempting to construct a naval base on the Red Sea.
  • After deploying troops to take part in the Saudi-led war in Yemen, Al-Burhan and Hemedti grew close to the Saudis. Hemedti has established ties with other nations, such as the UAE and Russia.
  • Egypt, which has significant ties to al-Burhan and the army, lately encouraged an alternate path of political dialogue through groups with closer ties to the army and al-Bashir’s previous administration.

How Sudan can Overcome this conflict?

Sudan is currently facing multiple conflicts and challenges, including armed conflicts in Darfur, Blue Nile, and South Kordofan, as well as political and economic instability.

1. Negotiate peace agreements

Sudan needs to prioritize negotiations with rebel groups and other stakeholders to reach a peaceful resolution to the ongoing conflicts. This will require political will and a commitment to dialogue and compromise.

2. Address the root causes of conflict

Sudan must address the underlying economic, social, and political issues that have contributed to the conflicts. This includes addressing grievances related to land, resources, and representation.

3. Promote reconciliation and accountability

Sudan needs to promote reconciliation and accountability to address past atrocities and ensure that perpetrators are held accountable for their actions. This can be achieved through the establishment of truth and reconciliation commissions and the implementation of justice and reparations programs.

4. Invest in development

Sudan needs to invest in sustainable development to address poverty, inequality, and underdevelopment, which are key drivers of conflict. This includes investing in education, health care, infrastructure, and other critical areas.

5. Build strong institutions

Sudan needs to strengthen its institutions, including the judiciary, security forces, and civil society, to promote stability, accountability, and good governance.


Sudan was facing multiple conflicts, including violence in the Darfur region, tensions between the military and civilian government, and fighting in the Blue Nile and South Kordofan states. The situation was complex, with various armed groups, political factions, and regional powers involved. The conflict in Darfur, which began in 2003, resulted in widespread violence, displacement, and human rights abuses. The situation was complicated by ethnic and tribal divisions, as well as competition over resources. Sudan needs to prioritize negotiations with rebel groups and other stakeholders to reach a peaceful resolution to the ongoing conflicts

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

  1. Why the war in Sudan in 2023?

    In the middle of April, two competing military factions engaged in a power struggle that marked the start of the conflict in Sudan. General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, the Sudanese army’s de facto commander, faced up against the RSF, a group of militias that support Gen Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, also known as Hemedti.

  2. What is happening in July 2023 in Sudan?

    Between June 17 and July 14, 2023, 320 incidents of political violence and almost 880 reported fatalities in Sudan are recorded by ACLED. Over 220 recorded fatalities resulted from over 80 of these instances, which involved violence directed toward civilians.

  3. What is the conflict in Sudan over?

    The Rapid Support Forces (RSF), a potent paramilitary organization, and the commanders of the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) are engaged in a power struggle that lies at the heart of the conflict.

  4. What is the situation in Sudan?

    There have been thousands of fatalities and injuries. Both inside and outside of Sudan, more than 3.3 million people have left their homes in search of safer places. Water, medical care, and food are still among the most essential amenities that many more people need.


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